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What element, found in all plants and animals, is used by scientists to determine approximate dates for an artifact’s age? Carbon  
What scientific Family classification do humans belong to? Hominids  
The study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans is called: Anthropology  
Who were the neanderthals? A distinct species of hominids. Great hunters who also took care of burying their dead. Tool makers.  
Homo sapiens that lived during the Ice Age are called Cro-Magnon.  
The Cave of Lascaux is: a cave in France where prehistoric paintings are found.  
Which method of archaeological dating determines an artifact’s age in relation to other objects? Relative dating  
Credited with beginning the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther  
Leader of the Mali Empire. Mansa Musa  
BA leader of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan  
Defeated England at the Battle of Hastings after invading from Normandy. William the Conqueror  
Inventor, scientist, sculptor, painter. Painter of the Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci  
King of the Frankish Kingdom during the 8th century. He was known for increasing administration and learning. Charlemagne  
What were the three major civilizations of Mesoamerica? Maya, Aztec, Inca  
Which country invaded and destroyed the Aztec civilization? Spain  
During the Japanese Middle Ages, what was the supreme leader or dictator called? Shogun  
Which famous Shogun began as a daimyo holding a portion of Japan and eventually went on to begin a shogunate that lasted 300 years? Ieyasu Tokugawa  
When Rome fell apart, the Eastern portion was still in existence. What name did this part of the Roman Empire take? The Byzantine Empire  
What was the Christian Church of Western Europe during the Middle Ages? Roman Catholic Church  
The time when there two Popes: one in Rome and one in Avignon, France, is known as what? The Great Schism  
What was the main system of protection for people in the Middle Ages? Explain. Feudalism. Large lords would provide land to their vassals in exchange for military service to protect the people of the land.  
What was a serf? A peasant who was bound to the land but was not quite a slave.  
What was the name of the plague that struck Western Europe during the 14th century? The Black Death  
Which two nations fought in the Hundred Years War? England and France. France won.  
Who led France to victory but was burned at the stake by the English? Joan of Arc  
When the Byzantine Empire pled to Western Europe for help against Muslim invaders, Western Europe responded with what? The Crusades  
Who defeated the Spanish Armada? Queen Elizabeth I of England  
True or False. The Holy Roman Empire was a strong, cohesive monarchy combining Germany and Italy. False. The Holy Roman Empire was very weak and the individual German and Italian states eventually gained independence.  
The Thirty Years War was fought over what issue? Religion  
Name the seven continents. North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica  
The Pharaoh held the title “Lord of the Two Lands”. Which of the following statements best describes the activities associated with this title? He collected taxes and made laws  
According to the geography maps in the British Museum, the archaeological sites of Giza, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, all had what in common? All were found in “black land”  
In mummification, for what did the ancient Egyptians use canopic jars? To hold internal organs.  
The ancient Egyptian pharaohs held both a political and religious title. What was the political title? Lord of the Two Lands  
In the Great Pyramid complex, what was the purpose of the three smaller pyramids? They were built for Khufu's wives.  
How long did the civilization of ancient Egypt last? 3,000 years  
Members of this group are related to the some of the earliest inhabitants who came to the Indus Valley around 2000 BCE. Dravidians  
In India, a a closed social group into which people are divided  
India’s 1948 Constitution forbids: the practice of untouchability  
Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, life in which empire has been described as a Gupta Empire  
What two world religions developed in the Indian subcontinent? Hinduism and Buddhism  
Upon which river were the Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations founded? Indus  
Who was Siddhartha Gautama? Buddha  
Why did China’s dynastic leaders want to keep China isolated from the outside world? They were concerned about the theft of resources like silkworms  
The earliest writing in China was discovered written on: oracle bones  
How did the Ancient Chinese refer to their country? The Middle Kingdom  
China’s earliest civilization developed along which river? Huang He River  
During what dynasty did bronze working become common? Shang  
Feudalism, the practice of kings sharing power with nobles in exchange for military or monetary payment, became popular during the _______ dynasty and eventually led to its downfall. Chou  
What did a Chinese Emperor Mandate of Heaven  
During which dynasty did the Golden Age of China begin? Tang  
Democracy was successful in ancient Greece despite the fact that: only men were allowed to vote  
The most famous Greek city-state was: Athens  
What would winners of the Olympic Games receive as a prize? Olive-leaf wreath  
Greek plays began as religious festivals honoring which god? Dionysus, God of wine and fertility  
Democracy originated in: Athens  
he Greek word democracy means.... government by the people  
The Parthenon was built as a home for the goddess: Athena  
Which group represented the wealthy landowners of Rome? patricians  
What was Rome’s first type of government? Republic  
What took place at the Coliseum? Gladiator tournaments  
What religion began in the Roman province of Judea? Christianity  
According to Roman tradition, who founded Rome? Romulus and Remus  
Which Carthaginian General's army crossed the Alps to attack the Romans during the Punic Wars? Hannibal  
What does 'Pax Romana' stand for? Roman Peace  
Who did Caesar defeat to become dictator? Pompey  
When Columbus arrived in 1492, the population of Mesoamerica exceeded 25 million. Within a century after his arrival the Native population declined by: Why? 90%, because of warfare and European diseases.  
Which Mesoamerican group was the first to develop calendars? Zapotec  
Six centuries ago Mayans were writing books. What was the attitude of the Spanish toward Mayan writing? They burned most of the books because they believed them to be dangerous and subversive documents.  
What was the principal crop in Mesoamerica? Maize  
The earliest urban center of the ancient Maya and model for Mesoamerican city-states was: Teotihuaca  
What did Mayans sometimes use as a form of money? Cacao beans  
In Ancient Japan, the emperor was: A figurehead without real power  
Samurai were expected to live according to an ethical code that stressed: loyalty to master  
Edo is the name for: Tokyo  
Between 1603 and 1869, Japan enjoyed a period of peace, prosperity, and cultural renaissance under a series of Shoguns known as the: Tokugawa Shogunate  
This leader of the Mongol Empire was originally named Temujin but rose to power and changed his name. He organized the Mongols into a powerful fighting force. Genghis Khan  
The Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan is known for completing: the Conquest of China  
Marco Polo visited China when he was 17 years old and met with ________________, the Mongol ruler who sent him on many official visits throughout China. Polo's journeys gave Europe an in depth view into a culture very different from their own. Kublai Khan  
What was the original name of the book about Marco Polo's travels in China that had a great influence on Europe? Description of the World  
Two major cities located on the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea became powerful trading centers in the Middle Ages and traded with the Mongol Empire. They were Genoa and ___________. Venice  
What was the name of the Mongol warrior whose empire was known as “The Golden Horde?” Batu  
What happened to Marco Polo when he returned home from China? He was put in prison after fighting against Genoa.  
How did Kublai Khan treat people of other religions? He was very tolerant of all religions.  
What did Marco Polo call China? Cathay  
What was one reason why the Mongol Empire did not last long? They had no unity of culture.  
When a boy reached the age of seven, he left home to begin training for knighthood. He was then called a __________. page  
Which of the following statements about Joan of Arc is not true? She said the Pope commanded her to free France  
According to this system, a lord gave vassals land in exchange for military and other services. feudalism  
During the 4th century CE, the Roman Empire split into two parts, the East Roman Empire and the West Roman Empire. The West Roman Empire had its capital in Rome. The East Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, had its capital in _____________. Constantinople  
What title did Pope Leo III bestow upon Charlemagne on December 25, 800 in recognition of his power? Roman Emperor  
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church: became extremely powerful.  
In which French city was the papacy located during part of the 14th century? Avignon  
What arose in towns as an association of business people with the same interests? guilds  
Who conquered England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066? William of Normandy  
Which document forcibly signed by King John was the first to limit the monarch's power in England? Magna Carta  
What was the largest and wealthiest monarchy in Europe by the end of the 13th century? France  
The German kings were unable to create a strong, central monarchy because they were preoccupied with controlling which country? Italy  
Where did the Renaissance first develop? Italy  
One of the most influential innovations in painting was the ability to show ________ in a picture. perspective  
Why was the printing press such an important invention? Its invention meant that books no longer had to be written by hand, lowering their cost, it that books became available to more people, and it inspired people to learn to read, ask questions, and explore.  
Which features enabled the Renaissance to develop in Italy? central European location, network of roads, wealth from trade  
The differences between a medieval craftsman and a renaissance artist can be summarized as: The most important significant changes dealt with materials.  
A humanist was most likely to study: Grammar, philosophy, and ancient civilizations.  
simony Selling of positions and offices within the church.  
indulgence A freeing from the earthly punishments associated with sin that has been forgiven.  
heresy To challenge, question or deny an established church teaching.  
What religious organization was the reformers of the Protestant Reformation protesting against? Roman Catholicism  
He died 100 years before Luther was born. He is remembered for translating the bible from Latin into English. John Wycliffe (1324 - 1384)  
A follower of John Wycliffe, Hus was burned at the stake, for among other things, espousing beliefs in allowing people to read the bible for themselves. John Hus (1369 - 1415)  
This Swiss reformer believed people should be allowed to interpret the bible for themselves. Ulrich Zwingli (1484 - 1531)  
This devout French reformer wrote the John Calvin (1509 - 1564)  
What caused Henry VIII to break from the Roman Catholic Church and form the Church of England? He wanted to divorce his first wife but the divorce was denied by the Pope  
Who crossed the Atlantic in the 11th century from Europe and briefly established settlements in modern day Canada? The Norsemen or Vikings  
One of the greatest explorations of the world consisted of 62 ships and was led by which Admiral? Cheng Ho  
What led to the encounter between Native Americans and travelers from Europe? Sailors were searching for a short cut to Asia, and European nations hoped to break the spice monopoly of the Arab traders.  
Why is the 15th century a “turning point”? It was the beginning of an exchange between the Old World of Europe and the New World of the Americas. It was the beginning of European political, economic and social dominance of the world. It was the beginning of the enslavement and diaspora of African people.  
After finding the South Sea, which Spanish explorer was convicted of treason and beheaded? Balboa  
Columbus did not find Japan, but he did bring back native people  
What was a part of the Columbian exchange? People, Diseases, and Ideas  
Two powerful European nations divided the world into two halves or spheres of influence. The two nations were Spain and Portugal.  
The original name of this pirate-turned-explorer’s ship was the Pelican. Who was he? Drake  
This explorer sailed the greatest distance from his home port Magellan  
Who eventually abolished the Holy Roman Empire for good? Napoleon  
Which family dominated the position of Holy Roman Emperor for centuries? Hapsburgs  
Maximilian I was able to establish the Hapsburg Dynasty as a European power. True  
The Thirty Years War ended with the Treaty of Westphalia. True  
The Thirty Years War resulted in independence for the German states. True  
The Thirty Years War involved many European powers. True  
Louis IV efforts to stop papal interference in German politics resulted in his being deposed by Pope Clement. True  
The Holy Roman Empire was a unified nation-state with a strong absolute monarchy. True  

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