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Variable Ration Schedule Hardest to extinguish or reduce  
Fixed Ration Schedule Easier to reduce than on variable ration schedule  
Variable Interval Schedule Behavior reinforced after a variable internal of time  
Fixed Interval Schedule Easiest to reduce or extinguish  
Becks Cognitive Therapy Goal is to help clients see the connections between their cognitions and emotions  
Premack Principle The reinforcer is a frequently occurring behavior that is used to improve a secondary behavior  
Biologically based phobias generally viewed as unconditioned responses  
Socially based phobias Considered to be conditioned (learned) responses  
Operant Conditioning includes these techniques: Stimulus control, self monitoring, overcorrection and response cost  
Response cost Involves the removal of a specific positive reinforcement each time a behavior is performed,  
Mnemonic devises are: Superior to rote rehearsal in short term memory  
Elaboration Best for both short term and long term memory  
Interference Hypothesis Been used specifically to explain age related deficits in selective attention  
Behavioral Chain Failure to initiate the sequence of responses is often a problem because the person will not receive the final (primary) reinforcer untilt he chain has been completed.  
D.R.O Differential Reinforcement for other Behavior  
Differential Reinforcement for other behavior is used: Both to eliminate an underirable behavior and establish alternative (desirable) behaviors  
Diathesis Stress Model Describes illness as the result of a combination of vulnerability and stress  
Becks cognitive theory of depression identifies ______ as the source of vulnerability. Cognitive factors  
Two Factor Theory It describes phobic reactions as involving both classical conditioning and negative reinforcement.  
Decatastrophizing (Beck's Cognitive Strategy) Useful for people with an Anxiety Disorder since they tend to overestimate the risk and consequences of perceived danger.  
Shaping Involves reinforcing successive approximations to the target behavior  
Albert Bandura's Theory of Self Efficacy It proposes that people undertake activities they beleive they are capable of performing.  
What are the four sources of self efficacy that Bandura has identified: Past accomplishments, observations of others, verbal persuasion, logical verification  
Divergent Thinking Think flexible and consider a wide range of soulutions  
Creative Thinking is most associated with what type of thinking? Divergent  
Crystallized Intelligence is associated with what type of thinking? Convergent Thinking  
What is crystallized intelligence Ability to utilize previously acquired skills, knowledge and experiences  
What is fluid intelligence It is the ability to draw inferences and understand the relationships of various concepts, independent of acquired knowledge. Find meaning in confusion and solve new problems  
Emotional reasoning is: I feel, therefore I am  

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