Hermeneutical Fallacies from the Appendix of Old Testament Exegesis

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Cards

allegorizing assuming that the components of a passage have meaning only as symbols of Christian truths  
argument from authority assuming that the views of experts or preponderance of them must be correct  
argument from silence assuming that everything relevant to an issue is mentioned in the Bible every time that issue is mentioned  
equivocation confusing a term or concept with another term or concept, thus misunderstanding its meaning  
exemplarizing assuming that because someone in the Bible did something, it is an example for us to follow  
false combination joining two statements or passages in such a way as to produce a hybrid conclusion  
false presupposition basing all or part of an argument or conclusion on incorrect assumptions  
figure of speech confusion failure to understand any of the many nonliteral expressions in human speech, especially metaphors  
genre confusion assuming that the interpretational rules for one genre apply to another  
Israel-Church confusion assuming that things applying to biblical Israel also apply to the church  
Israel-modern Israel confusion assuming that the modern, secular state named Israel in the Near East is the Israel referred to in the Bible  
Moralizing assuming that principles for living can be derived from all passages  
Personalizing assuming that any or all parts of the Bible apply to you or your group in a way that they do not apply to everyone else  
root fallacy assuming that the original meaning of a word always attends its usage  
spiritualizing assuming that events or factors have their real application in some religious truth beyond what they actually say  
totality transfer assuming that all the possible meanings of a word or phrase go with it whenever it is used  
typologizing assuming that certain real biblical characters or things are mentioned in order to foreshadow other real--and more important--characters or things  
universalizing assuming that something unique or uncommon in the Bible applies to everyone equally  

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