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Natufian 10k to 8.5k bc, mesopotamia, sedentary population, lived between coastal plains and hills in order to exploit food resources in different ecological zones,dry climate forced the people to cultivate cereal. stone sickle blades, mortars, pestles, storage jars, burnt barley seeds  
stone mortars and pestiles grinding up grain  
Why beer materialist high in calories and vitamin b  
why beer idealist reduce anxiety, spirituality, define group identity, reduce accountability  
guila naquitz, Mexico cave site, ancient squash and maize seeds, robert reynolds computer simulation model  
animal domestication sw asia, 8k bc, sheep and goats, symbitoic relationship, by products wool and milk  
Climate in 15k bc warm wet and favorable to h/g  
climate in 10k bc abrupt cold spells, only those who could cope survived, expeirmented with cereal grasses, especially wheat and rye,  
Kebran Pre-Natufian h/g's in 11k bc, mediterrean coast, hunted gazelle, foraged creael grasses, harvested nuts, set fire to grasslands to encourage new growth  
Levantine corridor very fertile region in mesopotamia syria and isreal that become good  
How to exploit cereal grasses accidental or selected  
rachis brittle joint between the seed and the plant item  
Jordan hills/ jordan valley new hybrid, oasis at the base of the hills,  
NETIV HAGDUD 10k bc, had tels, along jordan river, eastern mediterrean, pop 100-200, havested wild cereals with flint sickles, stopped surplus grain in small cirular storage bins, reflects early farming, explains on single plant species barley  
ABU HUREYRA along eurphrates river in syria, 3 stage transition to farming, mud brick house stage 3,  
flint chisels, obsidian very important use of stone tools for farming  
the physical evidence for work skelteal remiains tell us what people did, enlarge vertebrae->carry shit on head, forward ankle facets->squatting, bones degenerative->kneeling alot, muscles on upper arms->pushing motion for grinding grains  
Jericho 10k bc, very large settlement, jericho spring, stone tower and walls, beehive shaped houses, buried dead under floors, severed heads and placed with cache of skulls, using plaster recreated the face  
Jericho flint weapons and sickle blades shift in stone tool technology form h/g to farming  
shell beads on naturian site asd  
Natufians and domesticated animals hunting, food, pets  
natufian burial practices strong belief in the spiritual world, queen natufian buried with wolf necklace, 12 year old with puppy  
diverse economies 10k bc, neolithic farmers still hunting gazelle, wild pigs etc  
zagros mountains braidwoods hilly fland theroy  
jarmo 7k bc, shows later transition to farming, independent development, permannent hillside village, mud brick houses, storage bins and clay ovens, barly and emmer wheat, sheep and goat bones, flint sickle blades and grinding stones  
Hacilar, anatolia 8k bc, modern turkey, cappadocian moutians, rectangular houses with courtyards, hearths, barley and emmer wheat, wild animal species, no domesticated animals except dogs,  
catalhoyuk anatolia 7.3kbc, cappadocian mountains, great mound works, defensive walls, mud brick construction, great artwork of symbolic life, paintings and sculpture, women bulls childbirth, shamaistic scenes, shrines, center of the obsidian trade  
AFrica title  
H/G's in Egypt 17k bc ->15k bc, WADI kubbanya, fished in the nile, foraged nut grasses, oates and tubers, nunted ducks and gazelle, constant cycle of droughts and floods made life unpredictable and anxious,  
Qadan culture along nile in central eqypt (10k bc), evidence of early transistions to farming, grindstones, microlitich tools, large settlements, cemeteries, buried dead in shallow pits,  
First farmers in Lower Nile valley tiny farming communities in syria and isreal across asia and wetter zones of egypt during drought years,  
Nabta playa site 6k bc, domesticated barley found at site represetn the earliest evidence of farming in the nile region, paleoethicbotanical remains  
fayyum region fishing communities,  
merimde and badarian cultures typical of early nile farming communities, cultivated barley and wheat,  
saharan pastoralists pastoralists have few possesions, 3.5kbc pastoralsts move southward because of the teoste fly  
sub saharan pastoralists early pastoralists that adopted farming techiniques, early food production in sub saharan africa, easy to row replant top, yam  
slash and burn agriculture necessary for lands with low fertility  

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