Organizational Culture and Change

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organizational culture the system of shared beliefs and values that guides behavior in organizations  
socialization the process through which new members learn the culture of an organization  
observable culture what one sees and hears when walking around an organization as a visitor, a customer, or an employee  
core culture consists of the core values, or underlying assumptions and beliefs that shape and guide people's behaviors in an organization  
core values beliefs and values shared by organization members  
value-based management actively develops, communicates, and enacts shared values  
symbolic leader uses symbols to communicate values that help create a desired organizational culture  
workplace spirituality creates meaning and shared community among organizational members  
multiculturalism involves inclusiveness, pluralism, and respect for diversity  
multicultural organization has a culture with core values that respect diversity and support multiculturalism  
organizational subcultures groups of people who share similar beliefs and values based on their work or personal characteristics  
ethnocentrism the belief that one's membership group or subculture is superior to all others  
occupational subcultures form among persons who share the same professions and skills  
functional subcultures form among people who work together in the same functional area, such as marketing, sales, and finance  
ethnic or national subcultures form among people who work together and have roots in the same ethnic community, country, or region of the world  
gender subcultures form among persons who work together and share the same gender identities  
glass ceiling an invisible barrier to advancement by women and minorities in organizations  
biculturalism when minority members adopt characteristics of majority cultures in order to succeed  
managing diversity a leadership approach that creates an organizational culture that supports multiculturalism and respects diversity  
change leader takes initiative in trying to change the behavior of another person or social system  
top-down change when change initiatives come from senior management  
bottom-up change when change initiatives come from all levels of the organization  
unfreezing the phase during which a situation is prepared for change  
incremental change bends and adjusts existing ways to improve performance  
transformational change results in a major and comprehensive redirection of the organization  
changing the phase where a planned change actually takes place  
refreezing the phase at which change is stabilized  
improvisational change makes continual adjustments as changes are being implemented  
force-coercion strategy pursues change through formal authority and/or the use of rewards or punishments  
rational persuasion strategy pursues change through empirical data and rational argument  
shared power strategy pursues change by participation in assessing change needs, values, and goals  

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