Managerial Problem Solving

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Define Metacognition the mind's ability to monitor and control its own functioning, plays a key role in higher-level thinking processes.  
List the basic cognitivist account of how the mind works: 1)one's senses pick up info. from outside world 2)Sensory info. stored in short term memory activated knowledge in long-term memory. 3)To act or respond to the info, once searches long-term memory for knowledge of what to do in that kind of situation, triggering muscular or motor activity.  
List 11 major concepts cognitive scientists use to describe thinking: (mental processes) 1)Perception 2)Attention 3)Memory 4)Knowledge Representation 5)Categories 6)Understanding 7)Learning 8)Motivation 9)Judgement 10)Reasoning 11)Creativity  
Cognitive science encompasses work in... psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, an philosophy, all concerned with understanding the mind, knowledge, and thought.  
How do cognitivists view thinking? as the processing of symbolic information, paralleling the functioning of computers.  
Perception Mental process:process of acquiring information through one's senses. Involves bottom top-down and bottom-up processes.  
Attention Mental process:almost synonymous with consciousness, a limited store of conscious capacity that is allocated to selected stimuli and activities.  
Memory Mental process:physical store in which knowledge is held and related processes for adding to and retrieving information from that store. Includes short-term and long-term capacity.  
Knowledge Representation Mental Process-the different ways knowledge is represented in the mind.  
Categories Mental Process-the concepts, or mental distinctions we use to understand the world; the simplest meaningful elements of thought.  
Understanding Mental Process-Also known as comprehension, determining what things mean by relating new information to what is already known.  
Learning Mental Process-increasing knowledge, acquiring a skill, or developing expertise.  
Motivation Mental Process-goals, values, and other interest that prompt human activity.  
Judgement Mental Process-a non-verbal process that weight and combines relevant factors, qualitatively, to reach a conclusion.  
Reasoning Mental Process-Also known as inference, a verbalizable means of using evidence to construct arguments bearing on a conclusion.  
Creativity Mental Process-Associated with imagination, the ability to conceive of things or possibilities that don't exist.  
Define Intelligence understood as thinking skill, is in part a learnable capacity.  
Cognitive style referring to distinctive patterns of mental activity originating in a person's core beliefs, values, and underlying character traits.  
In the 1970's there were two psychologists that identified mental heuristics that can be bias human judgement under certain conditions, who were they? Tversky & Kahneman  
What are biases? they imply mental distortion or deviation from the truth.  
What are the 8 types (groups) of thinking errors? 1)Unreasonable Desires 2)Overly Influential Desires 3)Overly Influential Beliefs 4)Memory Effects 5)Insufficient Effort 6)Over-Reliance on Similarity 7)Mishandled Information 8)Cognitive Limitations  
3 Unreasonable Desires 1)Fears and phobias 2)Irrational likes and dislikes 3)Impulsiveness  
3 Overly Influential Desires 1)Wishful thinking 2)My-side bias 3)Rationalization  
5 Overly Influential Beliefs 1)Belief bias 2)Belief perseverance 3)Selective perception 4)Illusory correlation 5)Frame-of-reference biases  
4 Memory effects 1)Strong habit intrusion 2)Primacy and recency effects 3)Misuse of availability heuristic 4)Hindsight bias  
2 insufficient Efforts 1)One-shot thinking 2)Mindlessness  
3 Over-Reliance on Similarity 1)Misuse of representativeness heuristic 2)Misuse of stereotypes 3)Conjunction fallacy  
5 Mishandled Information 1)Self-fulfilling prophecies 2)Neglect of base rates 3)Insensitivity to sample size 4)Misuse of anchoring and adjustment heuristic 5)Conjunctive and disjunctive events  
3 Cognitive Limitations 1)Neglect of regression effects 2)Over-confidence 3)Illusion of control  

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