Thinking Errors

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Fears & Phobias (Unreasonable Desire)Thoughts are biased by the need to think of wats to avoid certain things or situations.  
Irrations likes and dislikes (Unreasonable Desire)Likes and Dislikes aren't based on an appreciation of one's real needs and values.  
Impulsiveness (Unreasonable Desire)People act on the basis of immediate needs.  
Wishful Thinking (Overly Influential Desire)Desires influence beliefs about the future.  
My-side bias (Overly Influential Desire)One's own ideas, beliefs, and assumptions are favored over those of other people.  
Rationalization (Overly Influential Desire)Bogus excuses are constructed to justify questionable courses of action.  
Belief Bias (Overly Influential Beliefs)New information is interpreted to make it compatible with existing beliefs and hypotheses.  
Belief perseverance (Overly Influential Beliefs)People persist in their beliefs, despite evidence showing those beliefs to be mistaken.  
Selective perception (Overly Influential Beliefs)People see what they expect to see, what they hope to see, and what their roles and training lead them to look for.  
Illusory correlation (Overly Influential Beliefs)People perceive non-existent correlations in date due to the effects of prior assumptions.  
Frame-of-reference biases (Overly Influential Beliefs)Thinking is ecocentric (dominated by one's personal point-of-view), ethnocentric(dominated by one's personal point-of-view), or sociocentric (dominated by assumptions of one's social class or culture.)  
Strong habit intrusion (Memory effects)Highly-learned habits cause behavior to be inappropriate to the situation.  
Primacy and recency effects (Memory effects) People are more likely to remember items at the start and towards the end of a list.  
Misuse of the availability heuristic (Memory effects)Judgements of even likelihood are based on the ease with which we can recall instances from memory.  
Hindsight bias (Memory effects)After the fact, people overestimate the degree to which they could have predicted an outcome.  
One-shot thinking (Insufficient Effort)People adapt the first alternative or conclusion that seems reasonable.  
Mindlessness (Insufficient effort)Relying on habit, routine, and conformity, people aren't as thoughtful as they should be.  
Misuse of the representativeness heuristic (Over-Reliance on Similarity)The similarity of a thing or event to past experiences has an excessive effect on assessments of its likelihood.  
Use of stereotypes (Over-reliance on similarity)Conclusions about a person or thing are based on stereotypes, rather than on case-specific information.  
Conjunction fallacy (Over-reliance on similarity)People think it more likely that two events will occur together than that just one of the events will occur.  
Self-fulfilling prophecies (Mishandled information) People don't recognize how their expectations affect their behaviors and the ultimate outcomes of their actions.  
Neglect of base rates (Mishandled information)People ignore prior probabilities in favor of other information that is less informative.  
Insensitivity to sample size (Mishandled information)People over estimate the validity of conclusions based on small samples.  
Misuse of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic (Mishandled information)When making estimates of probabilities and other numerical values, people ten to "anchor" on a readily available initial value and not adjust enough in the direction of the true value.  
Conjunctive and disjunctive events (Mishandled information)People over-estimate the probabilities of conjunctive events and under-estimate the probabilities of disjunctive events.  
Neglect of regression effects (Cognitive Limitations)People don't realize that extreme performances tend to be followed by performances that are closer to the average.  
Over-confidence (Cognitive Limitations)People tend to be over-confident in their judgements and to think they know more than they really do.  
Illusion of control (Cognitive Limitations)People over-estimate the amount of influence they have on events and outcomes.  

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