Clinical Pharmacology Test 1 C 1-7

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Pharmacology the science of the interaction of chemicals with living systems at the molecular level  
Medical pharmacology the science of substances used to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease  
Toxicology branch of pharmacology dealing with the undesirable effects of chemicals on living systems  
Materia Medica the science of drug preparation and the medical use of drugs (the precursor to pharmacology)  
Drug Receptor a binding site on a system that results in a functional change  
Pharmacogenomics the relation of the individual's genetic makeup to his or her response to specific drugs  
Drug any substance that brings about a change in biologic function through its chemical actions  
Chemical antagonists A drug that may interact directly with other drugs  
Osmotic agents Drugs that interact almost exclusively with water molecules  
Hormones Drugs that are synthesized inside the body  
Xenobiotics Chemicals not synthesized in the body  
Poisons drugs that have almost exclusively harmful effects.  
Toxins poisons of biologic origin (synthesized by plants or animals)  
Covalent Bonds very strong, biologically irreversible, reduces receptors (new ones must be made), shares electrons  
Hydrostatic Bonding weaker than covalent, between charged molecules  
Hydrophobic bonding very weak  
Chiral a Carbon with 4 different substituents  
Stereoisomer Same chemical formula, different chemical arrangement  
Diasteromer Non superimposable Non mirror images (meso, cis/trans, optical isomers)  
Enantiomer Non superimposable Mirror images. Identical physical and chemical properties, rotate polarized light differently  
Meso Compound Has 2 or more chiral centers but has an internal line of symmetry, making the compound achiral  
Racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers  
Rational Drug Design The ability to predict the appropriate molecular structure of a drug on the basis of information about its biologic receptor  
Pharmacodynamics action of the drug on the body  
Pharmacokinetics actions of the body on the drug  
The nature of drugs (factors that influence drug action) right size, right electrical charge, right shape, atomic composition, move from administration to active site, inactivated/excreted timely.  
Drug-Body Interactions pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics  
Pharmacodynamic Principles Agonist/Antagonist,  
Agonist Stimulatory Molecule - binds to receptor and activates it directly or indirectly causing an effect (a receptors endogenous lignand)  
Antagonist Inhibitory Molecule - binds to receptor preventing the agonist to bind therefore blocking the effects  
Ligand a neurotransmitter, hormone or drug that binds to the receptor  
Drugs that bind to ligand inactivator Looks like agonist, when really an antagonist. Ex: acetylcholinesterase antagonist stops the breakdown of acetylcholine. Looks just like an acetylcholine agoinst  
Parial agoinst Agonist if no other agoinst present, but slows another agoinst if present looking like an antagonist  
Inert Binding site Once ligand bound, doesn't have a biological functional change  
Pro Drug a drug that is converted in teh body to ist active drug by a biologic process  
Epithelium outside lining of all open parts of body (outer skin, stomach wall, etc)  
Endothelium innermost layer of cells (inside blood vessels, etc)  
Lipid: Aqueous Partition Coefficient how readily a drug moves between aqueous and lipid media (to blood and then to cells)  
Tolerance decreased response to the effects of a drug  
Therapeutic action the beneficial effect  
Side effect the detrimental effect  
Contraindication When not to use a drug. A risk factor that weighs in against the use of a treatment  
Indication When to use a drug. Sign or symptom in a disease which serves to direct to suitable treatment  
Habituation decrease in biological response (used like tolerance)  
Untoward effect unexpected response to drug therapy  
Uniport transports one molecule one way (a one way street)  
Symport transports two molecules in the same direction (a one way street)  
Antiport transports two molecules in different directions (a two way street)  

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