quiz 2

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Name two types of graphs commonly seen in specification sheets Polar and Frequency  
Name two types of graphs commonly seen in specification sheets Polar and Frequency response  
In order to maintain proper voltage transfer between pieces of equipment, you input impedance must be at least 10 times_______than you output impedance. greater  
Define audio distortion. anything that alters a pure input signal  
What does THD stand for? Total Harmonic Distortion  
Define Musical Dynamic range. the difference between the loudest and quietest passage of music in a composition  
Define electronic dynamic range. the difference between the maximum output before clipping and noise floor  
Most amplifiers operate in two modes, what are they? Dual channel and Bridged mode  
Name three types of internal wiring for drivers in a speaker cabinet Series,Parallel, Series-Parallel  
If I wire two 8 ohm drivers in series, what is my impedance? 16 ohms  
If I wire two 8 ohm drivers in parallel, what is my impedance?b 4 ohms  
A microphone is a transducer. It converts________ energy to ________energy acoustical/electrical  
Name the five most typical polar patterns for all microphones omni-directional, bi-directional(fig.8), cardiod,hypercardiod, and supercardiod.  
When using a cardiod vocal microphone, your monitor wedge should located where in relation to the mic? 180 degrees off axis.  
Many vocal mics have a rise in high frequency response. Why? vocal clarity  
Define the term transient response. A mics ability to react quickly to changes in air pressure  
Define the term proximity effect. an increase in bass response as a mic is moved closer to a source  
How many times can an analog splitter system split your input signal before causing signal degradation and impedance problems? 3  
Name four types of audio signal splitting. Parallel(direct), Digital, Active, and transformer isolated  
Name the four major components of an analog splitter system Sub-snake, main splitter rack, multi-pin cable, and multi-pin to XLR fanout  
On a touring splitter system, the console that is to provide phantom power to the microphones must be connected to which split? Parallel (direct)  
What type of digital splitter is used at FSL1? whirlwind E-snake  
What does the term console frame refer to? the number of input channels.  
Your preampifier or gain is used to boost_____ level signals to _____level signals mic/line  
How many EQ's do most professional level consoles have on each channel? 5  
High Pass Filters are used to cut out unwanted_____frequency information. low  
Define the term audio subgroup. Pre/post fader unity gain send  
Define the term aux send. post fader variable send  
Name three practical uses for the matrix. delay racks, recording feeds, ALD mixes.  
Why do we have internal oscillators on our consoles? component testing  
What does the term VCA stand for and how is it used? Voltage controlled amplifier that acts as a remote control over faders.  
If an analog console is modular in design what does that mean? each input and output is its own piece of hardware  
What does a mute group do? allows you to mute multiple channels with one button.  
Name three types of power generation other than coal. Wind, solar, and nuclear  
According to Ohm's law if you increase the ______, the amperage(current) decreases voltage  
In a 3 phase Y power system, how may conductors are there are what are their color codes? 5, ground is green, neutral is white, and the hots are black, red, and blue.  
What is the name of the industry standard connector used to your power distribution rack into a venue's disconnect? camlocks.  
what is the tie in sequence when connecting camlocks to the power distro? ground, neutral, hot, hot, hot  
Once power is safely tied in you are ready to start doing what? metering voltages  
On a 3 phase Y power system, the voltage between a hot leg and a ground should be? 120 Volts  
on a 3 phase Y power system the voltage between two hot legs should be? 208 Volts  
What are two types of over current protection devices used in audio equipment? Circuit breaker, fuse  
Define THD. the total amount of harmonic distortion found at an output.  
When looking at sensitivity specs for a cabinets frequency band, what exactly are you learning from that spec? dB SPL output at one watt one meter.  
What does IMD stand for? Intermodulation distortion.  
What are audio horns used for? to control audio high dispersion.  
Name two settings that a condenser microphone will often have on the mic. HPF and Pad  
True or false? Most professional level microphones will an output impedance of between 50 and 200 ohms. true  
Name three microphone accessories often used in sound reinforcement. Wind-screen, shock mount, and stereo mounting bar.  
Name two things you could use a direct output for. Multi-track recording, FX sends  
What the two user controllable parameters of a shelving filter? gain, frequency.  
What are the three user controllable parameters of a parametric filter? gain, center frequency, and bandwidth.  
True or False? Multiple channels can be mixed to 1 Aux output? true  
Most digital consoles have their inputs and outputs in external racks called the? FOH racks and stage racks.  
Define the term soft patching. allows any XLR to be patched to any fader on the console.  
Define the term virtual sound check. sound check is done to a multi track recording instead of a band.  
Name three ways that you can store the settings on a digital console. (types of media) USB key, Compact flash card, internal hardrive  
Name two features that we are going to see coming out on future digital consoles. system processors on board, amplifier monitoring from the console.  
What does the fader flip function allow an engineer to do? mix monitors from the faders  
Define the term latency as it relates to digital audio consoles. delay in milliseconds to to analog to digital conversion  
Define Attack time as it relates to the envelope of sound the amount of time it takes for a sound to reach its maximum amplitude  
Define Sustain time as it relates to the envelope of sound. how long a sound or signal holds at its maximum amplitude  
Define Decay time as it relates to the envelope of sound how long it takes for a sound to decay by 60 dB.  
Name the five parameters of a compressor Threshold, ratio, attack, release/decay, output gain.  
What two signals does a compressor graph compare? Input and output level  
Where in the signal flow chain are limiters used most often in sound reinforcement? bandpass outputs of the crossover.  
What are the five parameters of a gate? threshold, ratio, attack, hold, release  
What does the range or depth control do on a gate? sets the amount of attenuation when the gate is closed  
Define the term RT60. the amount of time it takes for a signal to decay by 60 dB once the signal has stopped.  
Name the four primary ways to create artificial reverberation. Reverb chamber, digital reverb, plate reverb, spring reverb.  
What is the dB slope for a 1st order octave? 6 dB  
What is the dB slope for a 2nd order octave? 12 dB  
What is the dB slope for a 3rd order octave? 18dB  
What is the dB slope for a 4th order octave? 24dB  
Define the term octave. halving or doubling of a frequency  
What is the octave above 1Khz? 2Khz  
What is the octave below 500 Hz? 250Hz  
Octaves are perceived by our ears as having equal_______. pitch  
what are the three primary shapes of crossover filters? Linkwitz-Riley, Bessel, Butterworth  
Crossover filter affect the ______frequency and the ________ of an audio signal. frequency and level  
What is a dedicated crossover? a crossover designed and dedicated to one channel only.  
Name the three categories of video production as outlined in class. Live, Live on tape, tape for post.  
What does IMAG stand for and provide an example. Image magnification, corporate shows.  
What does ENG stand for? Electronic news gathering  
What does EFP stand for? Electronic field production  
What does NTSC stand for? National Television Systems Committee  
What is the resolution and frame rate for NTSC color video? 525 lines of resolution and 29.97 frames per second  
With regards to television signal, what does luminance refer to? brightness  
with regards to television signal, what does chrominance refer to? color  
In NTSC video, what is the IRE value for video black? 7.5  
In NTSC video what is the IRE value for no signal black? 0  
In NTSC video what time code standard is used when it is important to know exactly how long a video clip is in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames? drop frame time code  
Name the three principal parts of a video camera. Lens, camera body, view finder  
What does CCD stand for and what does it do? Charged Coupled Device and it transduces light energy into electrical energy.  
Name the four primary types of transitions in video. Cut, Dissolve, Wipe, Key  
What specialized video monitor displays the luminance and horizontal sync information contained in the video signal? waveform monitor  
What specialized video monitor displays chrominance information along with the Sub Carrier? vectorscope monitor  
What is a fly pack? complete video system packed into fly cases.  
describe what a waist shot would look like? waist up  
describe what a close-up shot would look like? head and shoulders  
describe what a wide shot would look like. full body  
Define the term Head room. proper vertical proportion  
Define the term depth of field area in camera shot where the objects are in focus.  
Define the term perception of depth. how far things in foreground appear to be from objects in the background  
Putting a camera on wheels and moving towards the stage would be an example of what type of movement? dolly in.  

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