Potential Midterm Questions

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The smallest object that can be resolved by an ordinary light microscope has a diameter of about: 0.2 microns  
The magnification of a microscope: is equal to the product of the magnification of the objective and the ocular  
Immersion oil is used with high magnification because it: increases the resolving power of the microscope  
In dark-field microscopy specimens are viewed by: reflected light  
An image cannot be seen directly by the human eye through ultraviolet and electron microscopes  
An advantage of the phase-contrast microscope is that it: renders visible the cellular detail of living, unstained cells  
Magnification is obtained by: multiplying the eyepiece (ex. 10x) by the objective (ex. 1.8 mm).  
The magnification which you would obtain using a 10x eyepiece (ocular) and a 1.8 mm objective is: 1000x  
The part of the microscope that should be adjusted in order to regulate the amount of light is the: diaphragm  
The changing of objectives without major focusing adjustments is called: parfocal  
The meter is made up of how many micrometers (µm)? 1,000,000 µm  
A micrometer is how many mm? 1/1000 mm  
How many mL are in 1 fluid oz.? 29.57 mL  
How many grams are in a pound? 453.6 grams  
A certain drug is to be administered. The physician's order is for 50 mg, but the available vial is marked 5 cc  
What are hanging drop preparations? Organisms are mounted in water in a small, draft-free chamber in which they cannot be influenced by air currents.  
Hanging drop preparations are especially good for determining: motility  
An organism that retains the crystal violet-iodine complex even when rinsed with acetone-alcohol or some corresponding decolorizer is: gram positive  
Gram-positive bacteria generally: have low lipid content in their cell walls and are susceptible to penicillin  
You obtain a clean slide, put a drop of water on it, scrape some tissue off your cheek, dab it in the water and put a cover on it. You have just prepared what is known as a: wet mount  
A gram-positive organism is distinguished from a gram-negative organism by: taking up the purple stain and resisting decolorization  
The acid fast stain is used for identification of: tuberculosis  
The correct order of adding reagents in a gram stain is: crystal violet, grams iodine, acetone/alcohol, safranin  
When properly stained, gram-positive cells turn: purple  
The gram stain is a: differential stain  
What is the most critical step in the gram-stain? decolorization  
An organism that obtains energy from oxidation of glucose is a: chemoorganotroph  
Photolithotrophs and chemolithotrophs are generally: autotrophs  
Elements essential for cellular metabolism are: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen  
Bacteria cultivated in the laboratory must be provided with: water, a nitrogen source, and a carbon source  
Heterotrophs are most conveniently cultivated on: complex medium  
An example of a complex medium is: glucose, peptone, and yeast extract  
The most commonly used substance for solidifying media is: agar  
A pure culture is defined as one that: contains organisms of only one species  
The small portion of an old culture that is transferred to fresh media to start a new culture is called an: inoculum  
Bacteria that grow well at temperatures near 0ºC are known as: psychrophiles  
How many pounds are in a kilogram? 2.2 lbs  
What is the TSI result for Pseudomonas? K/K  
Is Clostridium an aerobe or an anaerobe? An anaerobe  
Positive result for glucose: yellow  
Negative result for glucose: red  
Positive result for Lysine: purple  
Negative result for Lysine: tan  
Positive result for Ornithine: purple  
Negative result for Ornithine: tan  
Positive result for H2S: black  
Negative result for H2S: tan  
Positive result for Indole: red  
Negative result for Indole: tan  
Positive result for Adonitol: yellow  
Negative result for Adonitol: red  
Positive result for Lactose: yellow  
Negative result for Lactose: red  
Positive result for Arabinose: yellow  
Negative result for Arabinose: red  
Positive result for Sorbitol: yellow  
Negative result for Sorbitol: red  
Positive result for VP: tan/red  
Negative result for VP: cream  
Positive result for Dulcitol: yellow  
Negative result for Dulcitol: green  
Positive result for Phenylalanine: brown  
Negative result for Phenylalanine: green  
Positive result for Urea: pink  
Negative result for Urea: tan  
Positive result for Citrate: purple  
Negative result for Citrate: green  
Lysine is also known as: LDC  
Ornithine is also known as: ODC  
What color is Serratia? red  
Positive Decarboxylase reaction: purple  
Bacteria that grow well at temperatures near 0ºC are known as: psychrophiles  
Bacteria that grow well at temperatures near 20-40ºC are known as: mesophiles  
Bacteria that grow well at temperatures near 50-60ºC are known as: thermophiles  
Sterilization is best achieved by: autoclaving for 20 minutes  
In which of these ways does autoclaving kill microorganisms? coagulation of cellular proteins  
Sterilization is: being free of all life  
A sterilizing oven is best set at: 165-170ºC  
The time required for sterilization or disinfectant may be affected by: the kind of organism to be killed, the nature of the agent used, pH, extraneous organic material  
Autoclaving and filtration are methods of: sterilization  
Sterilization of dry glassware is best done by: hot air sterilization  
A compound designated as a disinfectant should: destroy or inhibit pathogens  
The word used for an agent that will kill bacteria is: bactericidal  
Pasteurization is best accomplished at: 71.7ºC for 15 seconds or at 62.8ºC for 30 minutes  
Disinfectants kill: pathogens  
Iodine compounds are used primarily: as a skin antiseptic  
Alcohol is a good disinfectant at which concentration? 50-70%  
The actions of disinfectants are affected by: the presence of organic matter  
The standard for disinfectants: phenol  
Specific biochemical reactions are blocked by: antimetabolites  
Aniline dyes (such as crystal violet) are effective against: gram-positive bacteria  
Two compounds used in gaseous form for sterilization are: ethylene oxide and beta-propiolactone  
Chemical compounds highly toxic to microorganisms include: halogens and heavy metals  
Hydrogen peroxide is used primarily against: anaerobes  

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