Auditory System

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What separates the external ear from the middle ear? The tympanic membrane.  
Name the three ossicles. Malleus, incus, and stapes.  
Name the muscles that attach to the ossicles and regulate the sound energy that is transmitted to the inner ear and protect the ear from damage from very loud sounds. The tensor tympani and stapedius.  
Identify the innervation of tensor tympani. Trigeminal nerve V.  
Identify the innervation of stapedius. Facial nerve VII  
Define cochlea. Forms the membranous labyrinth, three coiled tubes in the inner ear.  
Define modiolus. The central bony core of the cochlea.  
Define spiral ganglion. Inside the modiolus, contains first order afferent neurons.  
Dendrites from the spiral ganglion innervate what portion of the inner ear? The Organ of Corti.  
Axons from the spiral ganglion form what portion of the inner ear? The cochlear component of the vestibulocochlear nerve.  
Define scala vestibuli. Filled with perilymph, sound vibrations enter here from the oval window.  
Define scala tympani. Filled with perilymph, communicates with the scala vestibule by a hole called the helicotrema.  
Define scala media (cochlear duct). Filled with endolymph, communicates with the vestibular apparatus through the ductus reunions.  
Define basilar membrane. At the base of the scala media, separates the scala media and scala tympani.  
Define Reissner's membrane. Separates the scala media from the scala vestibule.  
Define Organ of Corti. The receptor organ for hearing, lies on the basilar membrane, contains the hair cells.  
Describe the function of hair cells. Have stereocilia what are embedded into the tectorial membrane, deflection of hair cells leads to depolarization of hair cell membrane = nerve impulses.  
What is the pattern of vibration along the basilar membrane for high frequency sounds? Activates the hair cells at the base of the cochlea.  

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