Auditory System 2

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What is the pattern of vibration along the basilar membrane for low frequency sounds? Activates the hair cells at the apex of the cochlea.  
What are two ways sound can be conveyed? Air or bone conduction.  
Describe the pathway for hearing. Handout page C.  
Identify the nerve that is involved with the responses to sound in the human ear. VIII  
What is the role of the superior olivary nucleus in hearing? Sound localization and binaural processing.  
What is the role of the inferior colliculus in hearing? Major auditory center, fibers are organized in a tonotopic pattern: different tones go to different part.  
Describe the role of collaterals in hearing. Assist in auditory reflexes to sound.  
Which tract is utilized for response to loud sounds? The reticular activation system.  
Projections from the inferior and superior colliculus synapse with which tract to mediate audiovisual reflexes? Tectospinal, response of head and neck to sound.  
Define auditory palpebral reflex. Blinking of the eyes in response to a sound.  
Define auditory occulogyric reflex. Deviation of the eyes in the direction of a sound.  
Define cochleopupillary reflex. Constriction of the eyes followed by dilation of the eyes in response to a loud sound.  
Damage to the primary auditory cortices has what effect? Reduces sensitivity of hearing, damage to one cortex has little effect based on amount of collateral connections.  
Damage to the association cortex (Wernike’s) has what effect? Does not affect hearing, but interpretation and the meaning of the sound that is heard.  
Hearing is more lateralized to which hemisphere? Left.  
Singing and musical tone are more lateralized to which hemisphere? Right.  
What are the functions of the temporal lobes in hearing? Primary area: auditory reception, secondary association area: language comprehension, sound modulation, perception of music.  
What are the functions of the parietal lobes in hearing? Tertiary association area: recognition of auditory input, comprehension of words, interpretation of tones, loudness and timing of words.  
Define conduction deafness. Disruption in sound waves passing through the external or middle ear due to excessive wax buildup, otosclerosis (bone at the oval window), or otitis media.  

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