Autonomic Nervous System 2

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Identify the effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on a patient. Rest &digest branch of the ANS (constriction), normal maintenance of the body, promotes secretions and mobility of the digestive tract, involved in urination/defecation, activates areas when appropriate.  
What is the chief parasympathetic nerve? The vagus (CN X).  
Identify the functions of the hypothalamus. Coordinates ANS responses.  
Which anterior hypothalamic nuclei are involved with regulating parasympathetic control? The preoptic and anterior nuclei.  
Which posterior hypothalamic nuclei are involved in regulating the sympathetic nervous system? The posterior and lateral nuclei.  
What are the 3 principal pathways that allow the hypothalamus to exert control with brainstem and spinal cord autonomic nuclei. The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus, the mammillotegmental tract, and the medial forebrain bundle.  
Loss of any component of sympathetic innervation for the pupil and eyelid causes what syndrome? Horner’s syndrome.  
What are the clinical manifestations of Horner’s syndrome? Ptosis, anhidrosis, and papillary constriction.  
How does the integrity of the cornea become compromised in Bell’s palsy? From the lack of the production of tears for lubrication.  
How are the adrenal gland and kidney able to release neurotransmitters into the blood? Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are specialized to secrete catecholamines (NE: 80% and E: 20%) into the bloodstream.  
Name the two receptors that receive ACh and NE within the ANS. Cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.  
What are the two classes of cholinergic (ACh) receptors? Muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.  
What are the two categories of adrenergic (NE) receptors? Alpha and beta receptors.  
Where are muscarinic receptors located? In visceral effector organ cells, causes decrease in HR, miosis, and secretions of certain glands.  
Where are nicotinic receptors located? The adrenal medulla and some autonomic ganglia, release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream.  
Which receptors are slow to respond with a long lasting effect? Muscarinic.  
Which receptors have a fast response with a short effect? Nicotinic.  
Which receptors cause excitation, except on digestion where it is inhibitory? Alpha.  
Which receptors cause inhibition, except on the heart where it is excitatory? Beta.  

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