SOCI 2013 vocabulary and key notes from SOC textbook and Dr. Lori Holyfield's lecture

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Capitalists The ruling elite who own the means of producing wealth  
Petit Bourgeoisie Small business owners and owner workers who still have their own means of production but might end up in the proletariat because they are driven out by competition or their businesses fail  
Proletariat masses of workers who depend on wages to survive, who have few resources, and who make up the working class  
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Functional Theorist who coined the term 'sociology'  
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) English author and feminist who translated and condensed Comte's work and emphasized the importance of systematic data collection and an objective analysis of records; she published the first methodological text for sociology.  
Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) French sociologist and writer who agreed with Comte that societies are charactrized by unity and cohesion because of their members' common interests and attitudes  
Social facts aspects of social life, external to the individual, that can be measured  
Social Solidarity Social cohesiveness and harmony  
Division of labor an interdependence of different tasks and occupations, characteristic of industrialized societies, that produce social unity and facilitate change  
Capitalism an economic system in which the ownership of the means of production - like land, factories, large sums of money, and machines - is in private hands.  
Industrial Revolution began in 1780 and spread throughout Western Europe and the US during the 19th century.  
Karl Marx (1818-1883) German social philosopher who is often described as the most influential social scientist who ever lived. He tried to explain the changes in society during the Industrial Revolution  
Alienation Feeling of separation from one's group or society  
Max Weber (1864-1920) German sociologist, economist, legal scholar, historian, and politician who rejected the Marxian view that economics was a major factor in explaining society. He focused on social organization, a subjective understanding of behavior, and a value-free sociology.  
Value-free separating one's personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research  
Jane Addams (1860-1935) Social worker who founded Hull House, one of the first houses in Chicago to serve as a community center for the poor  
W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) Prominent black sociologist, writer, editor, social reformer, and passionate orator. First African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard. Helped found the NAACP.  
Functionalism an approach that maintains that society is a complex system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a society's survival. Famous Functionalists were Comte and Parsons.  
Dysfunctional social patterns that have a negative impact on a group or society  
Manifest Functions Functions that are intended and recognized; they are present and clearly evident.  
Latent Functions Functions that are unintended and unrecognized' they are present but not immediately obvious.  
Conflict Theory approach that examines the ways in which groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources (such as property, wealth, and prestige). Famous Conflict Theorists are Weber and Marx.  
Correlation The relationship between variables  
Causation The things which cause the dependent variable  
Independent variable Social phenomenon that causes another phenomenon  
Dependent variable that which is caused by the independent variable.  
Operationalization defining what a variable is  
Symbolic Interactionism A micro-level perspective that looks at individuals' everyday behavior through the communication of knowledge, ideas, beliefs, and attitudes. G.H. Mead founded this.  
Validity (accuracy) Did I study what I said I was going to study?  
Reliability (consistent) Will the answer always be the same? Can we generalize from this? Is it replicable? (similar results)  
Culture Learned set of beliefs, values, and norms  

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