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Allele Alternative form of a gene  
Antigens As used in this book, proteins that occur on the blood cells of an individual  
Codominance Codominant Alleles are alleles that, when paired in an organism, are both expressed (either additively or distinctively)  
Crossing Over The exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division  
Founder Effect A case in which a newly isolated sample from the original population soon diverges genetically from the parent population  
Gamete sex cells (sperm or ova) that contain half od the chromosomes of the adult of that species  
Gene Flow A movement of genes from one population to another  
Gene Pool The total complement of genes in a population  
Genotype The genetic constitution (gene makeup) of an organism  
Heterozygous Having one dominant and one recessive allele  
Homozygous Having either two dominant or two recessive alleles paired together  
Locus Location on a chromosome for a particular trait  
Phenotype Characteristics of an indivisual visually observed or discernable by other means  
Meiosis The process of cell division that results in half of the full complement of chromosomes for gametes, or sex cells  
Mitosis Cell replication and division in which he two resulting cells each have a full complement of genetic information  
Mitochondrial DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid that occurs outside the nucleus of the cell, in the mitochondria, and is therefore passed from generation to generation only by females  
Mutation An actual alteration in genetic material. This is the basic creative force in evolution and the only way to produce entirely new variation in a population. This is a change in DNA.  
Nucleotide One genetic base attached to a sugar and phosphate group  
Sex-linked genes that occur on the chromosomes that determine an individual's sex  
Somatic Cell any cells forming the body of an organism, as opposed to gametes  
The 4 bases of DNA & how they pair up GC (Guanine and Cytosine) & AT (Adenine and Thymine)  
The 4 factors that produce & redistribute variation in a population Gene Drift, Gene Flow, Mutation, Recombination  
Gene Drift change in the relative frequency with which a gene variant (allele) occurs in a population due to random sampling and chance  
Recombination Process by which a strand of genetic material (usually DNA; but can also be RNA) is broken and then joined to a different DNA molecule. This creates new combinations of genes on chromosomes and does not change gene frequency.  
3 differences between mitosis and meiosis are... 1. Mitosis creates identical copies of cells whereas meiosis creates sex cells that have only half a complement, 2. mitosis divides one nucleus into 2; meiosis splits 2 into 4, 3. Mitoses conserves chromosome number; meisois reduces it in half from diploid to haploid  
The 2 main differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis are... 1. spermatogenesis creates 4 sperm cells, but oogenesis creates only one functional egg cell, 2. Sperm is produced throught the male life, but eggs are already established  
spermatogenesis process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature male gametes  
oogenesis The creation of an ovum (egg cell); it is the female process of gametogenesis  
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, q is representative of recessive alleles  
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, q^2 is representative of recessive population  
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, p is representative of dominant alleles  
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, p^2 is representative of dominant population  
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, pq is representative of heterozygous alleles  

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