Dr. Schroeder's Intro to Psyc Review Guide

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Learning Some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.  
Components of the Classical (Respondent) Conditioning Paradigm UCS, UCR, CS, CR  
Unconditioned stimulus (US) Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism.  
Unconditioned response (UR) A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.  
Conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism  
Conditioned response (CR) A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus  
Types of Classical Conditioning Schedules Simultaneous, Forward, Backward, Delayed  
Simultaneous Conditioning Schedules UCS and CS happen at the same time. This leads to slow acquisition and can also lead to 'blocking', where the UCS is so strong that it blocks our attention to other stimuli, including the CS.  
Forward Conditioning Schedules the CS happens just before the UCS (i.e., the bell rings before giving Pavlov’s dog food)  
Backward Conditioning Schedules The UCS comes on and goes off, and after it’s gone, then we present the CS. Now the CS has absolutely NO predictive power. Some claim that that there is no learning taking place with this method at all.  
Delayed Conditioning Schedules Turning on the UCS and then turning on the CS. This is the most effective way to train an organism. Optimal delay is approximately .5 seconds; emotional responses might take a couple more seconds.  
Conditioned taste aversion suggests that if we eat something and then get sick later, we’re predisposed to form an association between the food and the illness.  
Garcia's work Determined that Taste Aversion helps us form an association between food we eat and illnesses; this is a great adaptive tool that helps us to avoid consuming poisons.  
Baseline The data used to establish the frequency of a behavior without any sort of training or conditioning.  
Acquisition The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together.  
Extinction The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented  
Spontaneous recovery The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period  
Generalization A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition  
Discrimination The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.  
Operant conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.  
Positive reinforcement Reinforces behavior by adding a desired stimulus  
Negative Reinforcement Reinforces behavior by removing an undesired stimulus  
Positive Punishment Presents an undesired stimulus in order to deter a behavior  
Negative Punishment Removes a desired stimulus in order to deter a behavior  
Thorndike's Law of Effect An organism emits a response, and then there’s a consequence (stimulus). It might be desirable, or it might be negative.  
Explicit memory The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences  
Implicit memory The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them  
Procedural memory The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or ‘knowing how,’ to do things  
Episodic memory The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place  
Semantic memory A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world  
Memory The ability to store and retrieve information over time.  
Encoding The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.  
Storage The process of maintaining information in memory over time  
Retrieval The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored  
Sensory memory store The place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less  
Short-term memory store A place where nonsensory information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute  
Long-term memory store A place where information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years  
Retroactive interference Situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier  
Proactive interference Situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later  
Chunking Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory  
Rehearsal The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.  
Working memory Active maintenance of information in short-term storage  
Transience Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time.  
Absentmindedness A lapse in attention that results in memory failure.  
Blocking A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it.  
Suggestibility The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections  
Bias The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences  
Persistence The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget  
Memory misattribution Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source  
Heuristic A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached.  
Algorithm A well-defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem  
Rational choice theory The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two  
Representativeness heuristic A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event  
Availability bias Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently  
Conjunction fallacy When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event  
Prospect theory Proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains  
Classical conditioning When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.  
False recognition which is a feeling of familiarity about something that hasn’t been encountered before  
Reinforcer Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it  

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