Dr. David Schroeder's General Psyc 2013 - Psychology: Schacter, Gibert, Wegner

Popularity (by total correct streak): 0
Popularity (by number of users): 0


Bounded Rationality concept based on the fact that rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make decisions.  
State-dependent learning an idea of learning and recalling that is based upon the physiological and mental state of the organism. Factors affecting state-dependent learning may include: environment, intoxication, emotional state, and sensory modality.  
Maintenance Rehearsal the process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about the information.  
Elaborative Rehearsal connecting new information with previously stored, already existing associative structures  
Recency Effect information perceived toward the end of an event is also more likely to be remembered. So, information in the 'middle' seems to get pushed out and is less likely to be remembered  
Primacy Effect when you are receiving information, the information perceived first is more likely to be remembered. This more recent information may simply get to long term memory more easily, and thus be remembered or we may just rehearse the early information more  
Recognition The ability to recognize what is known is usually superior to the ability to recall it.  
Recollection (Recalling) often requires prompting (as in stimulus or clues) to assist the mind in retrieving the information sought. There are three types of recall: Free, Serial, and Cued.  
Free recall when no clues are given to assist retrieval  
Serial recall when items are recalled in a particular order  
Cued recall when some clues are given to assist retrieval  
Reconstructed memory recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall  
Misinformation effects An unconscious adoption of later-learned information. The misinformation effect occurs when information received after a memory has formed influences the way we remember the event  
Discriminative Stimulus a stimulus, associated with reinforcement, that exerts control over a particular form of behavior; the subject discriminates between closely related stimuli and responds positively only in the presence of that stimulus.  
Shaping Breaks down the novel behavior into parts -- successive approximations -- of the target behavior.  
Successive approximation The parts of a behavior into which it is broken down in order to train it piece by piece into a learned behavior.  
Premack principle Uses high probability behavior to reinforce low probability behavior.  
Instinctual drift There are inherent behavioral tendencies that just come out sometimes even if an animal has been trained another way. These things interfere with the desired effect, but they cannot be trained out of an organism.  
Schedules of Reinforcement (Continuous, FR, FI, VR, VI)  
Fixed interval Consistent issuance of a reward based on the amount of time that passes rather than on the frequency or performance of desired behavior. Scalloping happens with FI because increased behavior won't impact reward system.  
Variable Interval VI is slow but steady, and not scalloped. It is the issuance of rewards based on the amount of time that passes between each reward, but it is variable and can fluctuate, unlike FI.  
End Game Effect Result of issuing fixed interval rewards so that organisms learn that there is no point in producing the behavior until a reward can be attained. We see examples of thing in ‘cramming’ for a test.  
Fixed ratio has increased behavior because there is a reward for the production of this behavior  
Variable ratio has the best output of behavior because there is no way of knowing when the reward will come. Slot machines are a great example of this.  
Decay forgetting due to memories fading over time. This does NOT apply to long-term memory  
Motivated Forgetting a purposeful process of blocking or 'suppressing' information  
Interference hindrance of learning new information because of other information learned before or after the new information. There are two types: Proactive Interference, and Retroactive Interference.  
Proactive interference information learned previously causes problems with new information.  
Retroactive interference new information cause recall problem with previously learned information  
False memories is a memory which is a distortion of an actual experience, or a confabulation of an imagined one. Many false memories involve confusing or mixing fragments of memory events, some of which may have happened at different times but which are remembered as occurring together.  
Serial Position Curve refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect). Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy effect).  
Rescorla-Wagner model a model of classical conditioning in which the animal is theorized to learn from the discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.  
S-R vs. S-O-R Psychology S-O-R Psychology recognizes that there is an organism reacting between the Stimulus and the Response rather than simply the Stimulus inducing the Response on its own.  
Observational Learning; Bandura: the Bobo doll study Bandura found that the children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in physically aggressive ways than those who were not exposed to the aggressive model.  
Spreading activation a method for searching associative networks, neural networks or semantic networks  

Quisition is a browser-based flashcard system that repeats old cards and introduces new ones at optimal time intervals. You can create your own card packs or use those developed by others.